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历年高考动词短语题型

英语网 | 2014-03-25
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  1.(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ)The watch was very good, and he ________ 20 percent down for it.

  A.paid          B.cost

  C.bought  D.spent

  解析:选A 考查动词辨析。句意:那块表很不错,他以20%的折扣价买下了它。A项表示“支付”,后跟具体的钱数,与for搭配,故选A。B项的主语一般是物;C项后面一般用“商品”作宾语,可排除;D项与后面的介词不搭配,其后应用介词on。

  2.(2013·福建高考)Michelle found a job as a high school teacher which ________ spending quite a lot of time with students.A.enjoys  B.involves

  C.practices  D.suggests

  解析:选B 考查动词辨析。句意:米歇尔找到了一份高中教师的工作,(这份工作)需要和学生待在一起的时间比较长。involve“包含,需要”,符合句意。enjoy“喜欢”;practice“练习”;suggest“建议”。

  3.(2013·湖北高考)According to the law, all foreigners have to ________ with the local police within two weeks of arrival.

  A.associate  B.dispute

  C.negotiate  D.register

  解析:选D 考查动词辨析。句意:按照该法律,所有的外国人在到来的两周内必须在当地警方登记。这里说的是在警方登记,故用register,表示“登记,注册”。associate“使联合,联想”;dispute“争论”;negotiate“协商,谈判”。

  4.(2013·江苏高考)-The town is so beautiful! I just love it.

  -Me too.The character of the town is well ________.

  A.qualified                       B.preservedC.decorated  D.simplified

  解析:选B 考查动词辨析。根据题意可知,这个城镇的特色保留得很好,因此选preserved表示“保存,保护”。qualify“使合格,使具备资格”;decorate“装饰”;simplify“使简化”。

  动词词义辨析一直都是高考考查的重点,这类题绝大多数情况下所给的四个选项的含义各不相同,没有关联性,此时考查的是对题干和语境的理解。偶尔也考查近义词的辨析。近三年考查到的还有:

  ①sacrifice (牺牲); substitute (代替); simplify (简化); survive

  ②conclude; lead; avoid (避免); hold

  ③persuade(说服); promise; invite; support

  ④open; narrow; widen; leave

  ⑤make; turn; take; have

  ⑥differ; shrink (收缩); fail; decline (下降)

  ⑦sponsor (赞助); launch (发射); organize; plan

  ⑧tell; remind (提醒); warn; advise

  动词的一词多义和熟词新义

  (2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ)Try not to cough more than you can ________ since it may cause problems to your lungs.

  A.check B.allowC.stop  D.help

  解析:选D 考查动词辨析。句意:尽量不要过多咳嗽,因为咳嗽过多可能引发你的肺部问题。not more than one can help意为“能少尽量少”,符合句意。

  动词的一词多义或熟词新义是考查的难点,例如上文提到的help,大家都熟悉的意思为“帮助”,但高考考查的是“忍住”。动词的熟词新义请参见本书附录。

  1.(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅰ)At the last moment, Tom decided to ________ a new character to make the story seem more likely.

  A.put up        B.put in

  C.put on  D.put off

  解析:选B 考查动词短语辨析。句意:在最后的时刻,汤姆决定添加一个新人物,以使故事显得更真实。put up“建造”;put in“添上”;put on“穿上”;put off“推迟”。根据句意可知,应选B项。

  2.(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ)Would you like to ________ with us to the film tonight?

  A.come along  B.come off

  C.come across  D.come through

  解析:选A 考查动词短语辨析。根据句意“你今晚愿意和我们一起去看电影吗?”可知,此处意为“跟随”。come along“跟着来,跟随”,符合句意。come off“举行,发生,成功”;come across“偶然遇见”;come through“(重病后)康复”。

  3.(2013·湖北高考)In much of the animal world, night is the time ________ for sleep -pure and simple.

  A.set aside                         B.set down

  C.set off  D.set up

  解析:选A 考查动词短语辨析。句意:在很多动物世界里,夜晚完全是用来睡觉的时间。pure and simple“完全是,不折不扣是”。set aside“留出,拨出(时间等)”,符合句意。set down“写下”;set  off“出发,引起”;set up“建立”。

  4.(2013·江苏高考)Team leaders must ensure that all members ________ their natural desire to avoid the embarrassment associated with making mistakes.

  A.get over  B.look overC.take over  D.come over

  解析:选A 考查动词短语辨析。句意:团队领导必须确保所有的成员克服他们自然想要避免因犯错而带来的尴尬。get over“克服”,符合句意。look over“检查”;take over“接管”;come over“顺便来访”。

  动词短语的辨析是动词考查的重中之重,甚至有些形式上单个动词的辨析也是考查所构成短语的辨析。总的来说,动词短语的辨析可分为三种:一是以动词为主体词的辨析;二是以副词或介词为主体词的辨析;三是无关联的动词短语的辨析。下面就常见的动词短语做如下总结:

  一、以动词为主体词的短语

  1.break

  break away from    脱离

  break down  坏掉;分解;垮下来

  break out  爆发

  break in   打断;闯入

  break into  闯入

  break through  突破

  break up  打碎;分解;分手

  Old-fashioned phones matter when wireless networks break down in disasters.(2013·福建高考)

  无线网络在灾难中瘫痪的时候,老式电话起到重要作用。

  2.bring

  bring about  引起,导致

  bring down  使降低,使下降

  bring in  引进;赚进

  bring up  抚养;养育;呕吐bring out  取出;出版;生产;阐明

  Born into a family with three brothers, David was brought up to value the sense of sharing.(2011·福建高考)

  因为大卫出生于有三兄弟的家庭,因此养成了分享意识。

  3.come

  come along  跟随

  come out  出现;出版;结果是

  come about  发生

  come across  偶遇

  come to  共计

  come up  出现;被提出

  come up with  提出

  She came across an old friend of hers yesterday while she was shopping at the department store.(2011·天津高考)

  昨天她在百货商店购物时遇到了一位老朋友。

  4.cut

  cut in 插嘴

  cut off 切断

  cut up  切碎

  cut down  砍倒,削减

  My uncle hasn't been able to quit smoking, but at least he has cut down.(2013·陕西高考)

  我叔叔一直没能戒烟,但至少减少了吸烟的量。5.get

  get away  外出度假

  get in  收割

  get into  进入;养成

  get through  完成;通过;解决;接通电话

  get over  克服

  get across  被理解;使通过

  get off  下车/船/马/飞机等

  get down to  着手做

  get up  起床;起身Jenny was looking for a seat when, luckily, a man got up and left.(2010·四川高考)

  珍妮正在找座位,幸运的是,这时一个人起身离开了。

  6.go

  go against  违背

  go over  预习;复习

  go out  外出;熄灭

  go without  没有……也行;没有……也可以勉强对付

  To get a better grade, you should go over the notes again before the test.(2011·四川高考)

  要想取得更好的成绩,你应该在考试前再复习一下笔记。

  7. looklook through  浏览;透过……看

  look into  调查

  look up  向上看;查找

  look up to  尊敬;敬仰

  look round/around  环顾

  I often look up the words I don't know in the dictionary or on the Internet.(2011·四川高考)

  我经常在词典或网上查阅不认识的单词。

  8. make

  make out  辨认出

  make up 组成;编造

  make up with  弥补

  make the best of  充分利用

  The school isn't the one I really wanted to go to, but I suppose I'll just have to make the best of it.(2011·浙江高考)

  这所学校并不是我真正想去的学校,但既然来了,我还是想充分利用它。

  9. put

  put in  放进,写进

  put away  收起,储存

  put out  扑灭;出版;生产

  put down 写下,镇压

  put off 推迟put on 穿上;上演

  put up  张贴;举起;建造

  put forward  提出

  Mary is really good at taking notes in class. She can put down almost every word her teacher says.(2012·全国卷Ⅰ)

  玛丽确实很擅长课堂上做笔记,她几乎能把老师讲的每一个单词都记下来。

  10.set

  set aside  拨出;置于一旁

  set up  建立;竖立

  set out  着手(做……);出发

  set about  着手(做……)

  set off 出发,引爆

  Traditionally, college students hold a graduation ceremony to encourage themselves before they set off on their life journey.(2013·安徽高考)

  传统上,大学生在开始他们的人生旅途之前会举行毕业典礼来鼓励自己。

  11.take

  take up  开始从事;占据;拿起

  take apart  拆卸

  take in  欺骗,吸收

  take off  起飞;腾飞;脱掉

  take on  呈现;雇用

  take over  接管Rod loves taking apart clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again.(2012·辽宁高考)

  罗德喜欢拆卸钟表,可是他从未能再组装上过。

  12.turn

  turn out  结果证明

  turn to  求助于;转向

  turn in 上交

  turn down  拒绝,把音量开小

  turn on 打开

  turn off  关掉

  turn up  出现;把音量开高

  turn over  翻开

  -You look upset. What's the matter?

  -I had my proposal turned down again.(2011·江苏高考)

  --你看上去不高兴,怎么了?

  --我的建议又被拒绝了。

  二、以副词或介词为主体词的短语

  13.out

  wear out  穿烂;用坏

  work out  解出;进展顺利

  let out  放出;发出;泄露leave out

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