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新概念英语第三册-Lesson 22(课文)高中

网络 | 2014-03-31
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  Text

  Lesson 22 By heart 熟记台词

  Some plays are so successful that they run for years on end. In many ways, this is unfortunate for the poor actors who are required to go on repeating the same lines night after night. One would expect them to know their parts by heart and never have cause to falter. Yet this is not always the case.

  A famous actor in a highly successful play was once cast in the role of an aristocrat who had been imprisoned in the Bastille for twenty years. In the last act, a gaoler would always come on to the stage with a letter which he would hand to the prisoner. Even though the noble was expected to read the letter at each performance, he always insisted that it should be written out in full.

  One night, the gaoler decided to play a joke on his colleague to find out if, after so many performances, he had managed to learn the contents of the letter by heart. The curtain went up on the final act of the play and revealed the aristocrat sitting alone behind bars in his dark cell. Just then, the gaoler appeared with the precious letter in his hands. He entered the cell and presented the letter to the aristocrat. But the copy he gave him had not been written out in full as usual. It was simply a blank sheet of paper. The gaoler looked on eagerly, anxious to see if his fellow actor had at last learnt his lines. The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds. Then, squinting his eyes, he said: 'The light is dim. Read the letter to me.' And he promptly handed the sheet of paper to the gaoler. Finding that he could not remember a word of the letter either, the gaoler replied: 'The light is indeed dim, sire. I must get my glasses.' With this, he hurried off the stage. Much to the aristocrat's amusement, the gaoler returned a few moments later with a pair of glasses and the usual copy of the letter which he proceeded to read to the prisoner.

  Language points

  (Attention:The following points are not covered by the video. It is better for you to watch the video or listen to the MP3 first and try to take notes on your own. Then you may check here to get more details. )

  1, Some plays are so successful that they run for years on end.

  on end

  a.== continuously: 连续的,位于具体的时间之后

  Eg: He sat there for hours on end.

  We had hardly anything to eat for days on end.

  b. ==upright 竖着

  Eg: The cat's fur stood on end.

  I got a big shock so my hear stood on end.我吓了一大跳,以致于毛骨悚然。

  2, In many ways, this is unfortunate for the poor actors who are required to go on repeating the same lines night after night.

  who = actor, 关系代词做主语,不能省略

  Eg.: The student who was required to recite the poem 100 times is really poor.

  3,One would expect them to know their parts by heart and never have cause to falter.

  learn/ know by heart: 把……牢记在心

  Eg.: The sentence is so important that you must learn it by heart.

  heart and soul 全心全意的,全身心的

  Eg: We serve the students heart and soul

  take heart 鼓起勇气,恢复信心

  lose heart 失去信心

  lose heart to sb= give heart to sb: 轻信于某人

  Eg: The boy lost his heart to the girl

  put one's heart into sth: 致力于某事

  Eg: Nothing is difficult if you put your heart into it.世上无难事,只怕有心人

  have one's heart in one's boots提心吊胆

  Eg: He had his heart in his boots when he went out alone at night.

  4,Even though the noble was expected to read the letter at each performance

  even though = even if = though / although

  at each performance = at every performance

  5, he always insisted that it should be written out in full.

  insist: 坚决要求,suggest:建议, order:命令,demand:要求,require:要求

  表示建议/要求/希望,和that宾语从句搭配,that从句必须出现should + 动词原形的虚拟,should 可以省略。

  in full==fully=completely

  6, The curtain went up on the final act of the play and revealed the aristocrat sitting alone behind bars in his dark cell.

  on the final act == in the last act 最后一场演出

  7, The gaoler looked on eagerly, anxious to see if his fellow actor had at last learnt his lines.

  look on 旁观

  anxious,形容词短语做伴随状况状语

  8, The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds.

  stare at 一眨不眨地看

  squinting: ing形式,做方式状语,伴随状况状语

  9,One night, the gaoler decided to play a joke on his colleague to find out if, after so many performances, he had managed to learn the contents of the letter by heart.

  play a joke on 开玩笑; play a trick on 捉弄,单方面取乐

  have a joke with sb. 和某人开玩笑,强调两人共同取乐

  Eg.: He laughs best who laughs last. 笑到最后的才是笑得最好的。

  Key structures

  定语从句(二)

  如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。

  指人并作主语的,就用who或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。

  这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。

  例如:Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.

  在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。

  that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”.

  Exercises

  Multiple choices

  1,The play in which the two actors took part _____ .

  a. had had a highly successful run of twenty years

  b. was about the plight of a nobleman

  c. ended with the imprisonment of the aristocrat

  d. had been performed so often that audiences were bored by it

  2 ,Which statement is true?

  When the aristocrat was presented with a blank sheet of paper, _____ .

  a. he improvised the words which he had forgotten

  b. the gaoler was eagerly waiting to take the aristocrat’s part

  c. he pretended that the light was not good enough for him to read by

  d. he asked the gaoler to fetch him some glasses

  Translation

  3, He locked himself in his room for hours on end.

  4, 我要求你们按时还书。

  5, 非常令我讨厌的是,他又对我撒谎了。

  改写为定语从句

  6, "The dog belongs to the Browns. It ate my fish yesterday."

  7, "The lady has gone to the police station. Her car has been stolen."

  8, "I' ve seen the film. His girl friend played the leading role In it.''

 

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